When writing to the file, I was using Writer. The solution is switching to OutputStream.

From JDOM reference, org.jdom2.output.XMLOutputter, output(Document doc, java.io.Writer out):
Warning: using your own Writer may cause the outputter's preferred character encoding to be ignored. If you use encodings other than UTF-8, we recommend using the method that takes an OutputStream instead.


Improving usability of input forms in web applications

In the web application I am developing, I had a barcode input text field and a URL input text field for two different functions of the application. This resulted in 4 text input fields and 4 submit buttons. The layout of the web page became confusing for new users and clattered. I needed to reduce input fields in the front end but also in the already implemented back end.
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