The answer is: it depends.
It depends on the programming language you are using and partially on the database you are using.
Most of the databases are services running on a web service. We can communicate with them using a special protocol, while we know the address and the port of the server where it runs. There are also databases stored in files, where we specify the target file.
Most of the programming lanugages and frameworks provide a "Connector" for databases, which allows us to communicate with the database. Of course you need to check if your programming language has a driver for the database type you want to connect to. Some frameworks or programming languaes also offer a higher level control structures called object-relational mapping, where the user can easily read or write some objects defined in the project.



Use automated UI Test, which is possible with the Selenium library and a browser driver. The browser driver allows us to run actions in a browser while writing code. The Selenium library is an interface to connect many browsers with the same code base. So now we are able to code a simple test, where a robot is automatically clicking through the website and trying out the login functionality. This technique may also apply to test other important and high priority UI features.


There are multiple barcode generator gems available, i decided on 'barby'
First I adding barby to the Gemfile file and using bundler to download and install said gem
Then I had to add the needed 'require' lines to controllers and views using barby. Code-128 is the type of barcode I needed to use.

require 'barby'
require 'barby/barcode/code_128'

Finally using the following lines of code I generated the barcode as a PNG and saved it into a file:

@barcode ="1234")
outputter =
outputter.xdim = 2'barcode.png','wb') {|f| f.write outputter.to_png }



Information Extraction Process for News Websites in Ruby

In order to extract and save the information that is according to the challenge we need to follow these high level steps that will be covered in detail in the following:

  1. Analyze website's source code and identify proper tags that need to be extracted
  2. In our Ruby code, use a XML/HTML parser that is able to extract information based on proper selectors (either XPath or CSS selectors)
  3. Save extracted information in a data storage

In the following we will apply these steps to the news website:

1. Analyse source code, Identify tags
Looking at the source code of our example page, we can quickly identify that all news items share the same class, namely: .entry-teaser

Following this, we can extract the child elements of this top element with class '.entry-teaser'.
The title is in the h2 element with class '.entry-title' and the short description is in all the underlying p elements.

2. Extract Information based tag identifcation in step 1

For this we use the library Nokigiri[1] for Ruby - it is an HTML, XML, SAX, and Reader parser. Among Nokogiri’s many features is the ability to search documents via XPath or CSS3 selectors. In this particular example, we will use CSS3 selectors:

(Beware: indentation is not properly adjusted in this view)

require 'nokogiri'
require 'open-uri'
url = ''
image_url_prefix = ''
doc = Nokogiri::HTML(open(url))
doc.css(".entry-teaser").each do |item|
link = item.at_css('.image').at_css('a')
href = link[:href]
image_url = image_url_prefix + link.at_css('img')[:src]
title = item.at_css('h2.entry-title').text
short_description = item.at_css('p a').text.strip

3. Save extraction information in database

For this we create a new model class[2] News (title, image_url, short_description, external_url, source)

We also extend our code example from before to save our new news item to the database:

news =
news.title = title
news.image_url = image_url
news.short_description = short_description
news.external_url = href
news.source = url!

[2] This model class uses the Ruby Gem for Active Record:


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